Eazy Gardening

Coco Plum: A Versatile and Hardy Plant for Your Garden

Coco Plum, also known as Chrysobalanus icaco, is a species of plant that is widely known for its beautiful appearance and numerous benefits to wildlife. It has a unique shape, dark green leaves, and small pink or white flowers that bloom in clusters.

In this article, we will explore the various characteristics of the Coco Plum, its preferred growing conditions, potential pest and disease issues, and planting and maintenance tips.

Overview of the Plant

The Coco Plum is commonly referred to as Bay Leaf, Icaco Plum, Cocoplum, and Yobaquina. This plant is native to the coastal areas of the Caribbean and Florida, although it can also be grown in other parts of the world.

The Coco Plum is a shrub or small tree that can reach up to 25 feet in height, but usually remains much smaller. It has a unique appearance with glossy dark green leaves that can grow up to 8 inches long.

During the spring and summer months, small clusters of tiny pink, white, or cream-colored flowers bloom all over the tree. One of the benefits of the Coco Plum is that it is an essential plant for wildlife.

The flowers of the plant attract many species of insects, such as butterflies, bees, and moths, which in turn, attract birds and other animals that feed on them. The fruit of the Coco Plum, which starts as green and turns to yellow, pink, or purple when ripe, is a favorite of birds such as the mockingbird and brown thrasher.

The fruit is also a favorite of many small mammals like raccoons and opossums.

Plant Cultivation and Care

The Coco Plum generally prefers sunny to partially shaded environments with well-drained soil. It can tolerate a wide range of soil types, including sandy, loamy, or clay soils.

The plant is known to be drought-tolerant once established, but it is important to water it regularly during the first few months after planting. It is also important to avoid overwatering as this can lead to root rot.

While the Coco Plum is a hardy plant that can tolerate various growing conditions, it is susceptible to certain pest and disease issues. Some of these include scale insects, spider mites, and leaf spot diseases.

Regular inspections of the plant can help detect these issues early, making it easier to treat the problem promptly and effectively.

Planting and Maintenance Tips

When planting Coco Plum, it is important to select a site with adequate sunlight and well-draining soil. The holes for your new plants should be dug to the depth of root mass and twice as wide.

Coco Plum should be planted at the same level it was in the pot, with the root ball level with the surrounding soil. Avoid planting the plant too deeply as this can lead to root rot.

There should be at least 6-10 feet of space between plants to allow for the plant’s mature size. To maintain the plant’s shape and promote healthy growth, prune it yearly in the late winter or early spring.

This can be done by removing dead or dying branches, cutting back the top of the plant, and shaping it with selective pruning cuts. Pruning also helps to reduce the chances of pest and disease issues.


Overall, the Coco Plum is a great plant to grow and care for in your garden. Its unique appearance, blooming habits and benefits to wildlife make it an attractive addition to any landscape.

By providing the plant with ideal growing conditions, monitoring for pest and disease issues, and pruning as needed, you can enjoy this beautiful plant for many years to come.

Plant Propagation Methods

The Coco Plum can be propagated using both sexual and asexual methods. Sexual reproduction involves the use of seeds, while asexual reproduction is done through vegetative propagation.

Seeds are the most common method of propagation for the Coco Plum. The seeds are collected from the fruit when it is mature and ripe.

After washing, they should be allowed to dry for a few days before planting. Seeds can be started at any time of the year and sown in containers or directly in the ground.

However, the use of containers is preferable since they provide better control of moisture and temperature. After planting, the seeds should be kept moist but not overwatered.

The germination process can take several weeks to a few months.

Asexual propagation, on the other hand, involves the use of stem cuttings, air layering, or grafting.

Stem cuttings are taken from a healthy plant and then rooted in soil or water. This is a simple and easy method that doesn’t require any special equipment.

To do this, take a cutting about 6 to 8 inches long and remove the leaves from the bottom two-thirds. Then dip the cut end of the stem in rooting hormone and plant it in soil or water.

Keep the soil moist and provide adequate light until the cutting roots and begins to form new growth. Air layering is another asexual propagation method used to propagate the Coco Plum.

To do this, select a healthy branch and make a slanted cut just below a node. Then make a second cut 2 to 3 inches above the first cut to remove a section of bark.

Apply rooting hormone to the exposed surface and wrap a moist sphagnum moss around it. Wrap the moss with plastic or saran wrap and secure the ends with tape.

Check the moss regularly to make sure it remains moist and after some weeks, roots should have developed. Cut the branch at the new root mass, and then plant it in soil.

Grafting is a technique that involves joining a stem from one plant onto the rootstock of another plant. To do grafting, select a healthy plant to be your scion and one that is the same species but less desirable, for your rootstock.

Then make a clean diagonal cut through the stem of the rootstock. Make a corresponding cut in your scion and join the two cuts together, and then tighten the joint by wrapping it with grafting tape to make sure it joins firmly.

Plant Adaptations to Different Environments

The Coco Plum has many adaptations that enable it to survive in different environments. The plants thick waxy leaves help to conserve water by reducing evapotranspiration.

The fruit is also water-resistant, which protects the seeds from damage by moisture. The Coco Plum can also tolerate salt spray, which makes it an excellent plant for coastal areas.

The salt tolerance is due to an adaptation where it excretes excess salt through glands in the leaves. In addition, the Coco Plum has a deep root system that helps it to access water and nutrients from deeper in the soil.

The plant is also tolerant to occasional flooding, which allows it to survive in wet conditions. In areas of low nitrogen and phosphorus, the Coco Plum has developed an adaptation to form symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil, which benefits both the plant and the bacteria.

During the growing season, the Coco Plum produces flowers and fruit that allow it to reproduce in different environments. The plant has adapted to produce small, hardy fruit that can survive in harsh conditions, ensuring that the species carries on through successive generations.


The Coco Plum is a fascinating plant that has many unique characteristics, adaptations, and propagation methods. Whether propagated through seeds or stem cuttings, the Coco Plum can be a great addition to any landscape.

Its adaptations to different environments make it a hardy plant that is both salt-tolerant and water-resistant, allowing it to survive in a variety of challenging conditions. With proper care and attention, this beautiful plant can be enjoyed by gardeners and wildlife alike for many years to come.

Usage of the Coco Plum in Indoor Settings

The Coco Plum can thrive in an indoor setting, provided the area has adequate lighting, temperature, and humidity levels. The plant can be potted using well-draining soil and placed in an area that receives bright, indirect sunlight.

Direct sun can cause leaf scorch, so make sure to place your plant in a location that gets light but not direct sun. During the winter months, care should be taken to protect the plant from cold drafts or excessively low temperatures.

The Coco Plum can be sensitive to temperature changes, so maintaining a consistent temperature is important for its health. To maintain healthy growth, the Coco Plum should be kept moist but not overwatered.

Overwatering can result in root rot, which can lead to plant death. During the growing season, fertilizing the plant with a balanced fertilizer can help it to thrive.

Pruning the plant regularly will also help to promote bushier growth.

Using the Coco Plum in Outdoor Settings

The Coco Plum can be an excellent addition to any outdoor setting. The plant’s dense foliage provides an excellent screen or windbreak and can be used as a privacy hedge in some areas.

When planted in rows, the Coco Plum can create a natural fence that serves as an attractive addition to any yard or garden. Due to the Coco Plum’s tolerance of a wide range of soil types and environmental conditions, it can be grown in many different settings.

Coastal areas that experience salt spray and high winds are particularly suited for growing the Coco Plum. The plant’s ability to thrive in arid conditions makes it ideal for xeriscaping, where low-water plants are used to create an attractive landscape.

When planting the Coco Plum outdoors, it is important to provide it with adequate space. Proper spacing will promote healthy growth and prevent overcrowding.

When used as a hedge or fence, the Coco Plum should be planted at least 6-10 feet apart. During the first few months after planting, the plant should be regularly watered to promote healthy root development.

If you are planting the Coco Plum in an area with a lot of wind or salt spray, it may be necessary to provide additional protection during the plant’s early growth stages. Shielding the plant from strong winds or limiting its exposure to salt spray can help it to establish a healthy root system.

The Coco Plum can also be used in group plantings or mixed borders, where its unique foliage and striking fruit can add an interesting element to the landscape. The plant’s adaptability and low-maintenance requirements make it an excellent addition to any garden or yard.

When properly cared for, the Coco Plum can create an impressive and attractive outdoor display that will last for years to come.


The Coco Plum is a versatile plant that can thrive both in indoor and outdoor settings. It is important to consider the plant’s preferred growing conditions, including lighting, temperature, humidity, and spacing, when planting it indoors or outdoors.

This hardy, resilient, and low-maintenance plant can be used to create beautiful landscapes, privacy hedges, natural fences, and other unique features, making it an excellent choice for gardeners and landscapers. Toxicity of the Coco Plum to Pets, Horses, and Humans

The Coco Plum is generally not toxic to humans, and the fruit, which contains high levels of vitamin C, is a common ingredient in many traditional recipes.

However, parts of the Coco Plum plant, such as the leaves, stems, and seeds, may be toxic to pets and horses. In pets, the Coco Plum can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and other gastrointestinal symptoms if ingested.

Ingestion of large amounts can also lead to kidney damage. Horses that eat the plant may experience colic, abdominal pain, and possible renal damage.

It is important to keep pets and horses away from the Coco Plum plant and to seek veterinary care immediately if any symptoms of toxicity are observed. Symptoms of toxicity in pets and horses may include vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, loss of appetite, and other signs of gastrointestinal distress.

In humans, the fruit of the Coco Plum is generally considered safe and even beneficial due to its high levels of vitamin C, which acts as an antioxidant. However, it is important to avoid eating any parts of the plant other than the fruit, especially if you have allergies or are sensitive to certain plants.

Overall, while the Coco Plum is not toxic to humans, care should be taken when handling and consuming any plants to avoid potential allergic reactions. If you have any concerns about the toxicity of the Coco Plum plant, it is always best to consult with a medical or veterinary professional before consuming or handling the plant.

In conclusion, the Coco Plum is a hardy plant that offers numerous benefits to both wildlife and landscapers alike. It is a versatile plant that can be grown indoors or outdoors and propagated using various methods.

While it is not toxic to humans, pets and horses may experience adverse symptoms if ingested. By properly caring for the Coco Plum and taking precautions to avoid toxicity, gardeners can enjoy the beauty and benefits of this remarkable plant for years to come.


Q: Can the Coco Plum be grown in different types of soil? A: Yes, the Coco Plum can tolerate a variety of soil types, including sandy, loamy, and clay soils.

Q: Is the Coco Plum a salt-tolerant plant? A: Yes, the Coco Plum can tolerate salt spray, making it an excellent plant for coastal regions.

Q: What are some common pest and disease issues that the Coco Plum can face? A: Some common issues include scale insects, spider mites, and leaf spot diseases.

Q: Can the Coco Plum be grown indoors? A: Yes, the Coco Plum can thrive in an indoor setting with adequate lighting and temperature.

Q: Is the Coco Plum toxic to pets? A: Yes, the Coco Plum can be toxic to pets if ingested, and owners should seek veterinary care immediately if any symptoms of toxicity are observed.

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