Eazy Gardening

Tropical Tranquility: The Low-Maintenance Pigeon Plum for Landscaping

Coccoloba diversifolia, more commonly known as the Pigeon Plum, is a plant native to the Caribbean and Southern Florida. This small, evergreen tree is an excellent choice for those who want a low-maintenance plant that adds a touch of tropical beauty to their garden.

In this article, we will cover the physical and ecological characteristics of the Pigeon Plum, as well as its cultivation and care.

Overview of the Plant

Common Names, Vernacular Names

The Pigeon Plum is known by many common names, depending on the region. In Jamaica, it is called “yellow mampoo” while in the Dominican Republic it is referred to as “yoco.” Other names for the plant include “wild dilly” and “red stopper.”

Description of the Plant

The Coccoloba diversifolia is a small evergreen tree that typically reaches a height of 20-30 feet. Its leaves are large, shiny, and leathery.

The leaves’ shape is heart-shaped, with a pointed tip and a slightly serrated edge. In the spring, the tree produces clusters of small cream-colored flowers.

These flowers turn into small, round, edible fruit that attracts birds and other animals to the plant.


The Pigeon Plum is a popular plant in both residential and commercial landscapes. The plant is easy to grow and maintain, making it a sought-after choice for those looking for a tropical vibe in their garden.

The tree’s foliage provides a perfect canopy for other plants to thrive underneath it without being subjected to direct sunlight.

Blooming habits

The Coccoloba diversifolia blooms small, white-colored flowers during the spring. These flowers give way to small, red berries that attract birds to your garden.

The attraction will be pleasing to the eyes, and it will also create a conducive environment for other plants to thrive.

Benefits to Wildlife

The Pigeon Plum is an essential plant in any garden for its ability to attract wildlife. The plant produces fruit that is a favorite of many bird species, including pigeons, doves, and finches.

The fruit is also eaten by other animals, such as squirrels and raccoons. By planting the Pigeon Plum in your garden, you will provide a source of food for these animals and promote biodiversity.

Plant Cultivation and Care

Preferred Growing Conditions

The Pigeon Plum prefers to grow in areas with full sunlight, although it can tolerate partial shade. The plant needs well-draining soil with a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. The tree can withstand an occasional drought but prefers to have a regular supply of water.

Potential Pest and Disease Issues

The Pigeon Plum is generally disease-resistant. However, it can attract scale insects and whitefly infestations that can cause damage to the plant’s foliage.

Regular pruning and maintenance can prevent these pests from taking hold. Using organic, eco-friendly products can be an excellent way to control the pest’s infestations without harming the environment.

Planting and Maintenance Tips

When planting the Pigeon Plum, ensure that the soil is well-drained and moist. If the soil is too dry, the plant may not develop properly.

It would be best if you planted the tree away from sidewalks, as the roots can grow large and cause damage. You should also prune the plant to shape it and remove any dead or diseased wood.


In conclusion, the Coccoloba diversifolia, or Pigeon Plum, is an excellent choice for anyone looking to add a touch of tropical beauty to their garden. This plant is easy to grow and care for, making it perfect for both novice and experienced gardeners.

Its large, glossy leaves and small, white flowers produce small, edible fruit that attracts wildlife to your garden, promoting biodiversity. With proper care, the Pigeon Plum will thrive in a variety of growing conditions and provide beauty for years to come.

3) Plant Propagation Methods, including Sexual and

Asexual Reproduction

The Pigeon Plum can be propagated by both sexual and asexual means. Sexual reproduction involves using seeds to grow new plants, while asexual reproduction involves the use of vegetative parts such as cuttings and grafts to grow new plants.

Here are some methods for propagating the Pigeon Plum:

Sexual Reproduction

To propagate the Pigeon Plum through sexual reproduction, you will need to harvest the fruit in the fall, extract the seed, and sow them in a mixture of sand and peat moss. The seeds should be kept moist and warm until they germinate in the spring.

The seedlings can then be transplanted into larger containers or planted directly into the ground.

Asexual Reproduction

The Pigeon Plum can be propagated asexually using different techniques such as stem cuttings and aerial layering. Here are some methods for asexual propagation:

Stem Cuttings

To propagate a Pigeon Plum using stem cuttings, select a healthy stem that is approximately six inches long with at least two nodes. Remove the lower leaves and dip the cut end into rooting hormone powder.

Place the cutting in a well-draining soil mix and keep it moist. After a month or two, the cutting should have developed roots and can be transplanted to a larger pot or outside in the soil.

Aerial Layering

Aerial layering is a propagation technique used to exploit the plant’s natural ability to develop roots where a stem meets the ground. This method is commonly used for larger plants and trees.

Select a healthy branch, strip the bark from a small section of the stem, and wrap the exposed section with moss or peat moss. Wrap the stem with plastic wrap, and keep it moist.

After a few months, roots should have developed. Cut the stem below the rooted section and plant it in a pot or into the ground.

4) Plant Adaptations to Different Environments

The Pigeon Plum is native to the Caribbean and Southern Florida. This means that the plant has developed adaptations to suit its natural habitat’s climate and soil conditions.

Here are some adaptations of the Pigeon Plum that help it thrive in different environments:

Drought Tolerance

One of the plant’s adaptations is its ability to tolerate drought conditions. It can withstand periods of prolonged dryness, making it an excellent choice for regions with little rainfall.

The Pigeon Plum can store water in its leaves and stems during dry periods, helping it survive until the next rainfall.

Salt Tolerance

The Pigeon Plum is also salt-tolerant. This means that it can survive in soil that has a high salt content, making it a suitable choice for coastal regions.

The plant has adaptations that allow it to remove excess salt from its leaves, reducing damage to the plant from salt burn.

Shade Tolerance

While the Pigeon Plum prefers full sunlight, it is also adaptable to partial shade because of its ability to grow in the understory of larger trees. Its leaves allow light to penetrate, which makes it possible for it to thrive in partially shaded areas while still receiving enough sunlight to grow.

Wind Tolerance

The Pigeon Plum is also adapted to survive strong winds. Its branches are flexible enough to bend without breaking, and its shallow root system allows it to stay anchored during strong gusts.

The plant can also grow into stiff and sturdy trees that can withstand hurricanes. In conclusion, the Pigeon Plum plant has been able to adapt itself to different environments comfortably, showcasing its natural versatility.

It is a low maintenance, easy to propagate plant, that provides food and shelter to a wide range of wildlife making it a useful plant to have in any garden or landscaped area.

5) Usage the Plant in Indoor Setting

The Pigeon Plum is an excellent plant for indoor growing because of its adaptability to different growing conditions. Growing the plant indoors can help bring a touch of tropical beauty to your home, and it’s also easy to care for.

Light Requirements

The Pigeon Plum requires lots of natural light to grow indoors, so place it near a bright window or next to a south-facing window. Artificial light can also be a viable option to provide the plant with enough light to grow, especially when considering an indoor setup with no natural light.

Soil Requirements

When grown indoors, the Pigeon Plum prefers well-draining soil that is rich in organic matter. You can mix equal parts potting soil, peat moss, and perlite to create soil that meets the plant’s needs.

Water Requirements

In general, the Pigeon Plum prefers well-draining soil that is moist but not waterlogged. Make sure to keep soil evenly moist and not over-water, as too much water stress can cause the plant to grow poorly.

Temperature Requirements

The Pigeon Plum needs to be kept in warm, humid temperatures to thrive indoors. This plant prefers a year-round temperature of around 65-80 with high humidity levels.

Increase the humidity levels in the air by spraying water on the leaves or using a humidifier.

Maintenance Requirements

Indoor-grown Pigeon Plums require occasional pruning to maintain an appropriate size and shape. Dead and diseased wood should be removed to encourage new growth.

Regular fertilization every 2-3 months with a balanced fertilizer will also help promote healthy growth.

6) Usage the Plant in Outdoor Setting

The Pigeon Plum is a great plant for outdoor landscaping, as it can be used in a variety of ways to enhance the beauty and function of your garden.

Landscape Design

The Pigeon Plum is an excellent choice for an accent plant, screen, or small-scale privacy fence. Its large, shiny leaves provide a perfect opportunity for shade under which additional plants such as ferns, low-lying shrubs, and flowers can thrive.

The Pigeon Plum is also perfect for patio and courtyard design, where it can be grown in pots and provide a tropical feel to your dcor.

Screen Planting

Pigeon Plum can be used in outdoor settings as a screen plant where it can be grown into a tight shrub or small tree that can block unwanted views, protect against winds and reduce noise levels. They can be planted three to six feet apart to create privacy for your outdoor space.

Native Planting

The Pigeon Plum is native to Florida and the Caribbean, which makes it an excellent choice for an eco-friendly and sustainable garden, minimizing the risk of any invasive species. The plant can attract a variety of wildlife to your garden, including birds, squirrels, and other small mammals.

By planting many Pigeon Plums in your landscape, you create a natural environment for creatures to thrive, promoting biodiversity.

Maintenance Requirements

Outdoors, the Pigeon Plum is very low-maintenance, typically requiring watering only once a week or whenever the topsoil becomes dry. Every fall, prune the plant to maintain the tree’s shape and promote healthy growth.



The Pigeon Plum is an excellent choice for both indoor and outdoor landscaping projects. The plant’s adaptability to varying light, soil, and temperature conditions makes it perfect for a wide range of settings, including screens, landscaping design, and native planting.

With little maintenance, the Pigeon Plum can thrive in both indoor and outdoor environments, bringing a touch of tropical tranquility to your home and complimenting the overall aesthetics of your garden. 7) Toxicity of the Plant to Pets and Horses, Humans

The Pigeon Plum is generally safe for humans and pets to ingest, but it is essential to note that individual reactions may vary.

The fruit of the Pigeon Plum is edible, but the texture and taste may not be attractive to some individuals. Although the Pigeon Plum poses little risk of toxicity, it is still crucial to be cautious.

Toxicity to Pets and Horses

The Pigeon Plum is not poisonous to pets or horses. The fruit of the plant is safe for dogs and cats to eat, making it popular among animal lovers who want to grow their own edible plants.

However, it is essential to chop the fruit into smaller pieces so that your pet can eat it safely without choking. The plant’s leaves will not generally cause any harmful effects if they are ingested by pets or horses, but they might cause irritation or an upset stomach.

Toxicity to Humans

The Pigeon Plum is generally considered to be safe for human consumption. However, people with allergies to its fruits, like any other fruits, should avoid its consumption.

The plant’s leaves and bark may cause skin irritation when in contact with sensitive skin. While there have been no reported cases of severe allergic reactions, it is always important to consult a physician if you develop any adverse reactions to the plant.



The Pigeon Plum is an excellent choice of landscaping plant for both indoor and outdoor decor because it has little toxicity and requires minimal maintenance. The plant is generally safe for pets, horses, and humans to ingest.

However, some individuals may experience adverse reactions to the plant, and caution should always be exercised when handling it. If you observe your pet eating the Pigeon Plum or other plants, please contact poison control centers immediately.

Pigeon Plum, also known as Coccoloba diversifolia, is an excellent choice for landscaping projects, as it is low-maintenance and versatile, adding a touch of tropical tranquility and a perfect canopy for other plants to thrive on. It is generally considered safe for human consumption, but it may cause irritation if ingested in large quantities by pets or horses.

In summary, Pigeon Plum is an ideal choice for gardening projects that promote biodiversity, adds to the aesthetics, and requires minimal care and maintenance.



Is the Pigeon Plum poisonous to pets or horses? No, the Pigeon Plum is not poisonous to pets or horses, but care should be taken to avoid choking hazards or symptoms of gastrointestinal upset.

2. Can the Pigeon Plum grow indoors?

Yes, the Pigeon Plum can adapt to both indoor and outdoor grow conditions. 3.

What is the Pigeon Plum’s primary use in landscaping? The Pigeon Plum is ideal for uses such as screens, landscaping design, and native planting.

4. Are the Pigeon Plum’s fruits edible?

Yes, the fruit is edible but may not be palatable to all individuals. 5.

Does the Pigeon Plum require pruning? Yes, regular pruning helps maintain the tree’s shape and promote healthy growth.

With careful consideration of planting location, adequate feeding, and pruning, the Pigeon Plum is an excellent choice for those looking for an aesthetically pleasing and eco-friendly garden that supports biodiversity in plants and wildlife.

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